Chrome 24 is already on its way, it's already landed in the Chromium daily builds, but Chrome 23 still has some work to get it in shape for migration to the beta channel.
That's going to take a week or two during which time, Chrome 24 will be available as part of the Chromium builds or the Chrome Canary builds.
Usually, when Google makes the switch to a new version number it's just that, a switch to a new version number. This time around, Chrome 24 already has a couple of new things.
You'll notice the new "+" button replacing the "star" button which has been the shortcut for bookmarks for a very long time. Chrome is now getting a share menu that enables you to either bookmark the page or share it on your favorite site.
The share feature is based on web intents, which is actually quite a useful new functionality that's being built into Chrome and Firefox with the hope of becoming standard, eventually.